Grammar: Nouns in Apposition nouns in apposition appositive predicate nominative

When one noun or noun phrase is used to modify another noun or noun phrase by renaming the same person, place, or thing, we say they are in apposition.  

Nouns in Apposition

From A New English Grammar for Schools, by Thomas Harvey

1. Appositive

An appositive is a renaming noun or noun phrase that closely follows the noun or noun phrase being modified.

a. Essential (restrictive) appositive

The racehorse Abbeywood won the Kentucky Derby.
Of course a racehorse won the Kentucky Derby; we need to know which horse. “The racehorse” is too general, so its appositive, “Abbeywood”, is needed to give essential information that clarifies the meaning of the sentence.
***Essential appositives are usually not set off by commas.***

b. Nonessential (nonrestrictive) appositive

Abbeywood, a racehorse, won the Kentucky Derby.
In this sentence, “A racehorse” is an appositive that modifies “Abbeywood,” but it is not needed to clarify the sentence. Since everyone already knows that only a racehorse can win the Kentucky Derby, “A racehorse” can be removed, and the meaning of the sentence will still be clear: Abbeywood won the Kentucky Derby.
***Nonessential appositives are usually set off by commas.***

c. Appositives unmodified or modified by the only

In her brother Abraham’s house lived Solon.
Thomson the poet was indolent.
The Racehorse Abbeywood in a Stable (Title)
***Nouns in apposition, unmodified, or modified by the only, are not separated by commas.***
 2. Predicate Nominative
A predicate nominative is a noun or noun phrase or pronoun in the predicate part of a sentence that renames a noun or noun phrase or pronoun in the subject part of a sentence.
Emperor Nero was a cruel tyrant.
The Racehorse Abbeywood in a Stable
is a painting by Basil Nightingale.

***A predicate nominative always follows a linking verb.***

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