Grammar: Articles are adjectives   articles are adjectives
Definitive adjectives are divided into three classes: articles, pronominal adjectives, and numeral adjectives.

I. Articles

Articles are adjectives. There are three articles in the English language: a, an, and the.
From A New English Grammar for Schools, by Thomas Harvey:

1. “The” is called the definite article, because it definitely points out the object which it defines or restricts

The book is on the table.
horse ran over the bridge.

2. “A” or “an” is called the indefinite article, because it defines or restricts in an indefinite or general manner.

A book is on a table.
horse ran over a bridge.

3. “A” or “an” are considered one article, because they are merely an earlier and a later form of the same word.

a. A
A” is used before words beginning with a consonant sound.
a horse;  a bridge 
b. An
An” should be used before words beginning with a vowel sound.
an apple, an elephant

4. An article sometimes limits not a noun alone, but a noun as limited by other adjectives

The old men retired early.
The young men
remained until midnight.
The article here limits the complex ideas “old men” and “young men.” 
An early spring is no sign of a fruitful season.
The article “an”/“a” limits the complex ideas “early spring,” “fruitful season.”

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